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sunbet的援用方法与程式

发布时间:2018-12-01 12:17| 位朋友查看

简介:sunbet的援用方法与程式 -- APA程式 所谓APA程式是指美国心思学会 (American Psychological Association) 所出产 版的出产版顺手册 (Publication Manual) 中,拥关于投稿该协会旗下所属二什九种期刊 时必……

  sunbet的援用方法与程式 -- APA程式 所谓APA程式是指美国心思学会 (American Psychological Association) 所出产 版的出产版顺手册 (Publication Manual) 中,拥关于投稿该协会旗下所属二什九种期刊 时必须信守的规则而言。 学术界畅通称为 APA 程式。APA 伸证程式由两片断组 成:论文中的文件援用与论文前面的参考文件。必须剩意的是,参考文件部份与 文件援用部份毫不相干,援用费过的文件必须出产当今参考文件中,同时参考文件中 的每壹项文件邑被援用费过,两者的干者姓氏以及发表发出产年代也必须完整顿不符。壹、文件援用(Citation in Text)文件援用的目的,壹方面是僚佐读者进壹步直接查阅拥关于文件的情节,另壹 方面是尊敬与保障人家的知产权。文件援用的方法首要拥有两种,壹种是内行文 傍边直接援用干者姓氏,如:Widdowson (1978) has claimed that native speakers can better understand ungrammatical utterances with accurate vocabulary than those with accurate grammar and inaccurate vocabulary. 另壹种是直接援用切磋的结实或 论点,如:Communicative methods have the common goals of bringing language learners into closer contact with the target language (Stern, 1981). APA 文件援用的格 式首要拥有下列几种,分述如次: (壹)干者为壹团弄体时 例1:Stahl (1983) has demonstrated that an improvement in reading comprehension can be attributed to an increase in vocabulary knowledge. [注:若行文中提到干者姓氏,用此例所示 程式援用] 例2:During the period of Grammar Translation methodology, bilingual dictionaries became common as reference tools (Kelly, 1969). [注:行文中不提到干者姓氏,用此例所示程式援用; 句子儿子本身的标注点标记位于括号的前面。] 例3:…, the ability to use etymology was respected as “one way of discovering truth” (Kelly, 1969, p. 30). [注:若行文中拥有直接伸语,须标注皓伸语在原文中的页码。假设直接伸语跨 越两页(或以上) ,需用“pp.” ;如“(Kelly, 1969, pp. 30-31)”] 假设直接伸语超越40个词,所援用的材料须单列壹段,摆弄两边内收缩叁到五个字符,不用副 伸号;用到来标注注伸证的圆括号位于伸证材料本身的标注点标记前面。 例4:It follows, then, that vocabulary, as a bearer of meaning, is considered by the Natural Approach to be very important to the language acquisition process: Acquisition depends crucially on the input being comprehensible. And comprehensibility is dependent directly on the ability to recognize the meaning of key elements in the utterance. Thus, acquisition will not take place without comprehension of vocabulary. (Krashen & Terrell, 1983, p.155) [注:此例的前两 行是论文干者的叙说,其他是直接伸语。因超越40个词,用此程式。] (二)干者为两人或两人以上时1.干者为两人时,两人的姓氏全列。例5:Ulijin and Strother (1990) claim that “while a complete conceptual and lexical analysis may be necessary for reading comprehension, a thorough syntactic analysis is not” (p. 38). [注:页码标注识表记标注帜在直接伸语的前面。 请比较此例与例3的不一。此次 论文著干不采取:Ulijin and Strother (1990, p. 38) claim that “while …”的伸证程式。] 例6:Readers tend to disregard information that seems unimportant, add information that ‘should’ be there, and focus their attention on what, in their opinion, is essential (Steffensen & Joag-Dev, 1984). [注:行文中两人的姓氏用“and”衔接(例5) ,在圆括号内用“&” 衔接(此例) 。 ] 2.干者为叁到五人时,第壹次所拥有干者均列出产,第二次以后条写出产第壹位干者, 并加以“et al.”。 例7:According to Ostny, Vandecasteele, Deville, and Kelly (1987), indispensable conditions for reading in L2 are understanding the text’s words and the knowledge of its subject matter. [注:行文中提到干者,按此例伸证。] 例8:Indispensable conditions for reading in L2 are understanding the text’s words and the knowledge of its subject matter (Ostny, Vandecasteele, Deville, & Kelly, 1987). [注:行文中没拥有拥有 提到干者,按此例伸证。] 例9:According to Ostny et al. (1987), indispensable conditions for reading in L2 are understanding the text’s words and the knowledge of

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